Autonomous modal identification automates the calculation of natural vibration frequencies, damping, and mode shapes of a structure from experimental data. This technology complements damage detection techniques that use continuous or periodic monitoring of vibration characteristics. The approach shown in the paper incorporates the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA) as a data analysis engine and an autonomous supervisor to condense multiple estimates of modal parameters using ERA's Consistent-Mode Indicator and correlation of mode shapes. The procedure was applied to free-decay responses of a Space Shuttle tail rudder and successfully identified the seven modes of the structure below 250 Hz. The final modal parameters are a condensed set of results for 87 individual ERA cases requiring approximately five minutes of CPU time on a DEC Alpha computer.